Skin disease that affects 80% of the population in puberty, but which can also occur as “adult acne” until the fourth decade of life. Acne is a localized skin inflammation resulting from an over activity of the oil glands at the base of hair follicles. The oil/sebaceous glands, which are located just beneath the skin, continuously produce and secrete oil through openings in the skin. The oil lubricates and protects the skin. Under certain circumstances, cells that are close to the openings of the oil glands block the openings. This causes a buildup of oil underneath the skin, where bacteria can multiply, and cause the surrounding tissues to become inflamed. Slight forms which occur with blackheads (pores that are blocked with tallow and died skin, in which acne bacteria can reproduce easily) and with few ignited pimples can easily be handled with the correct skin care such as sebamed Clear Face. In heavier cases medication is needed, but skin care can support the effect. Spots should by no means be squeezed.
With Anti-Ageing all measures to decelerate aging are summarized. This includes for example nutrition, lifestyle, medication and operations. In terms of the skin anti-wrinkle creams are the most common measure.
Agents that inhibit or neutralize potentially harmful compounds known as free radicals. Free radicals are produced during metabolic activity. High levels of free radicals may eventually lead to impaired functioning and destruction of neurons and other bodily cells. Certain antioxidants are thought to neutralize free radicals before cellular damage occurs. Within skin it is especially the vitamins A, C and E, Glutathion and Superoxiddismutase that counteract free radicals.
Medically known as alopecia. Complete or partially loss of hair. With every new hair growing cycle less hair or thinner hair is appearing. In the end only little or no hair is produced. Reasons for baldness include reactions to testosterone or lack of estrogen, illness or medication.
Barrier Function
Capability of the skin to avoid dehydration and the infiltration of damaging materials and pathogens into the body. The barrier function is to a large degree guaranteed by the horny layer of the skin, where dead skin cells together with a complex mixture of skin own lipids in interstices cause an almost impenetrable seal. The combination of sweat and tallow that covers the skin’s surface as hydro-lipidic film contributes to the barrier function. The barrier function is usually impaired by pathological changes in the stratum corneum.
Basal Cells
Small, round cells found in the lower part, or base, of the epidermis, the outer layer of the skin.
Body Odor
Unpleasant smell caused by the bacterial dissolution of excretion of sweat glands. Sulfureous conflations and fatty acids create a slightly sourish, rancid and intense smell.
Mixture of substances that prevents strong deviations of the pH value in watery lotions by adding acids or leaches. In living tissue buffers are important to keep the vital balance of the pH value. In chemical terms buffers are salts of weak acids with strong leaches or vice versa. With skin, lactic acids stabilize the skin's natural, protective acid mantle with an average pH of 5.5.
Tiny blood vessels that connect the arterioles (the smallest divisions of the arteries) and the venules (the smallest divisions of the veins). The capillaries form a fine network between the sclera and the adipose tissue of the skin. It nourishes the skin with oxygen and nutrients and supports the degradation of waste generated during metabolism. It also regulates body temperature by cooling the warm blood originating from the inner body at the surface.
Mutations in the connective tissue that result in a bumpy or dimpled appearance of the skin. Cellulite is hardly susceptible through skin care, however the massage when applying cream has a positive affect on the development of elastic fibers, thus is improving the image of the skin.
Lipids that form an important barrier effect in the horny layer of the skin. Embedded in fatty acids and cholesterol they form a sealing grease film between horn cells (corneocytes). Due to increasing age, certain illness such as neurodermatitis or environmental influences the content of ceramides disappear in the membrane layers of the stratum corneum and the skin gets dry.
Cholesterol is a principle constituent of the barrier function of the skin. Its initial stage, cholesterol sulfate,  is produced in the epidermis and transformed in the horny layer.
Collagen is the principal protein of the skin and connective tissue. It gives the connective tissue firmness and together with elastin it creates elasticity.
The primary sign of acne consisting of a widened hair follicle filled with keratin squamaoe, bacteria, and sebum (oil). A comedo may be closed or open. A closed comedo has an obstructed opening to the skin and may rupture to cause a low-grade skin inflammatory reaction in the area. The common name for a closed comedo is a whitehead. An open comedo has a wide opening to the skin and is capped with a blackened mass of skin debris. It is commonly known as a blackhead. Comedos can be partially averted by avoiding fatty skin products.
Dead skin cells in the horny layer that are firmly connected at the bottom. Towards the skin’s surface the connections gradually loosen up so that the corneocytes/horn cells are seen as microscopically small single cells. Approximately 0.5 g horn cells are lost daily by a human being. Dermatitis initiated by various causes disturb the maturation of the corneocytes. As a consequence, lumps with the naked eye perceived as dandruff detach from the skin’s surface.
Disorder of the scaling of corneocytes on the surface of the skin. Persistent flaking, scaling or itching of the scalp. For dandruff sufferers, the natural process of scalp-cell renewal is accelerated when fighting off a normal fungus found on every human head. This causes dead cells to slough more quickly.
Hair removal based on mechanical means (shaving, waxing, plucking), chemical means (dissolving of the keratins), or long-term hair removal based on desolation of the hair root with heat, electricity or laser.
Inflammation of the skin, either due to direct contact with an irritating substance, or to an allergic reaction. Symptoms of dermatitis include redness, itching, and in some cases blistering. Equivalent to eczema.
The dermis is a layer of skin between the epidermis (with which it makes up the cutis) and subcutaneous tissues, and is composed of two layers, the papillary and reticular dermis. Structural components of the dermis are collagen, elastic fibers, and extrafibrillar matrix (previously called ground substance).
Eczema dermatitis
See Dermatitis.
Capacity of the skin to contract after extension. Important for the collagen- and elastin fibers in the dermis. With age less elastin and collagen is produced, the elasticity decreases and the skin becomes limp and wrinkly.
A protein that coil and recoils like a spring within the elastic fibers of connective tissue and accounts for the elasticity of structures such as skin, blood vessels, heart, lungs, intestines, tendons, and ligaments. Elastin functions in connective tissue together with collagen. Whereas elastin provides elasticity, collagen provides rigidity to connective tissue.
Proteins that guarantee the metabolism and the building- and dismantling process of the skin. Even in the outer horny layer with its dead skin cells many enzymes are active in order to keep up the barrier function of the skin.
0.1mm thick cell layer on the surface of the skin. Epidermis is the upper or outer layer of the two main layers of cells that make up the skin. The epidermis is mostly made up of flat, scale-like cells called squamous cells. Under the squamous cells are round cells called basal cells. The deepest part of the epidermis also contains melanocytes, that produce melanin responsible for the color of the skin, keratinocytes and cells of the immune system.
A redness of the skin resulting from inflammation, for example, as caused by sunburn.
Fatty Acids
Fatty acids are important components of all cell membranes, making them permeable and elastic. Essential fatty acids play a central role in the formation of ceramides - the most important barrier-forming lipids of the epidermis - and are therefore essential for the stability and function of the permeability barrier. Combined with cholesterol and ceramides fatty acids upgrade the fat structure between the squamous cells, thus prevent dehydration and infiltration of pathogens.
A sac from which a hair grows and into which the sebaceous (oil) glands open. The follicle is lined by cells derived from the epidermal layer of the skin. Each follicle normally goes through a five-year cycle of growth and rest, with about 90% of the follicles growing hair at any one time, averaging about six inches (15 cm) of growth per year.
Free Radicals
Aggressive substances that emerge in skin (and in other organs) under the influence of pollutants and pathogens, UV-radiation and as reaction to inflammations. Free radicals destroy cells and tissue material of the skin and are the main cause for premature skin aging.
Goose Bump
A temporary local change in the skin when it becomes rougher due to erection of little muscles, as from cold, fear, or excitement.
With few exceptions hair can be found everywhere on the skin: as head hair, beard, pubic hair and fine, short lanugal hair. In the roots of hair transformed skin cells are being transmuted to several layers, i.e. hair. This process is similar to the accruement process of the horny layer. The anagen, or active, phase refers to the stage during which hair grows continually. This phase normally last up to eight years. The catagen, or transitional, phase refers to the period of time in which the stoppage of growth of an old hair occurs and the growth of a new hair in the papilla begins. This normally lasts two weeks. The telogen, or resting, phase is when the new hair grows in the follicle while the old hair has become dormant. After approx. three month of this phase the new hair will force the old hair from the follicle. The life cycle of hair causes up to 100 hairs to be shed each day.
Hair loss
Normal procedure in the life cycle of hair. A daily loss of 100 hair is normal. Hair loss is the thinning of hair on the scalp. The medical term for hair loss is alopecia. Alopecia can be temporary or permanent. Hair loss normally occurs gradually with age in both men and women, but is typically more pronounced in men.
Horny layer
The stratum corneum as a rule refers to the outermost layer of the epidermis, which is itself the outer layer of the skin. The full name of the stratum corneum of the skin is the stratum corneum epidermidis. It consists of dead cells that are embedded in an nearly impenetrable lipidic film.
Hydro Lipidic Mantle
Surface of skin consisting of sweat and tallow which smoothen the skin and build protection against dehydration and penetration of pathogens.
Immune System
The skin plays a key part in our immune system. Its acid mantle protects against infections, foreign substances and pathogens. Via the lymph system and via blood vessels the skin’s mastocytes are in constant communication with the immune system thereby preventing the infiltration of pathogens.
Inner Clock
Also regulates our skin. The barrier function of the skin is most effective in the morning, thus guaranteeing minimal sensitivity. Towards the evening the barrier function slackens. The skin becomes not only more sensitive, but also more receptive for skin care products. Regeneration processes of the skin are at full blast during the night. This explains why evening care of the skin is especially effective.
Irritation of the skin is caused by external influences. Possible effects include reddening, swelling, burning and itchiness as well as blisters or rashes.
Protein in the upper layer of the skin, hair and nails. Is created by keratinocytes.
Skin cells. Are created in the basal cell layer, mature within two weeks, than die and stay as corneocytes two more weeks in the horny cell layer before they scale at the surface.
Pertaining to keratolysis, the softening and shedding of the horny outer layer of the skin. Keratolytic agents include uric acid, lactic acid and vitamin A acid which all have a peeling and skin smoothening effect. Mechanical keratolysis is also used against acne and blackheads.
Keratosis Pilaris
Small rough bumps, generally on the face, upper arms, and thighs. Keratosis refers to a localized overgrowth of the upper layer of skin. Pilaris pertains to the hair. In keratosis pilaris, the buildup of keratin (the hard protein in the skin, nails, and hair) is limited to the hair follicles.
Another word for "fats." Lipids can be more formally defined as substances such as a fat, oil or wax that dissolves in alcohol but not in water. They serve as a source of fuel and are an important constituent of the structure of cells. Skin related lipids in skin care can easily be absorbed by the skin.
Area between skin and mucosa. As there are no sebaceous glands this area is extremely sensitive and needs special care against irritations and sunlight.
A skin pigment that gives the skin its color. Dark-skinned people have more melanin than light-skinned people. Melanin also acts as a sunscreen and protects the skin from ultraviolet light. Melanin is produced by cells called melanocytes. It provides some protection against skin damage from the sun, and the melanocytes increase their production of melanin in response to sun exposure. The skin of light-skinned  people mobilizes color free melanin for little tanning as immediate reaction to sun exposure. Until all of the epidermis and horny outer layer is filled with melanin people need four weeks of regular sun exposure without any sun burn.
Pigment cell in the epidermis. Produces melanin when exposed to sun and distributes it to neighboring keratinocytes.
Settlement of bacteria and fungus on the skin. Mainly harmless microorganisms that produce unpleasant odor. These microorganisms naturally protect against skin infections by extruding pathogens. They live from sweat, tallow and dead skin. They are well adapted to the skins acid mantle of a pH value of 5.5.
Nail Skin
Protects the nailmatrix. Should not be removed.
Horny plate on the end of the finger or toe. Each nail anatomically has a body, lateral nail folds (on the sides), a lunula (the little moon-shaped feature at the base), and a proximal skin fold (at the base). Nailkeratin is more demure than the keratin of skin or hair.
Natural Moisturizing Gactor (NMF)
Combination of component parts of the horny layer, sweat and tallow which together form a natural protection shield against dehydration.
Blood vessels nourish the skin “from within“. From the outside only the cells of the upper layer of the skin can be nourished. Many times instead of actual nutrients only humidity and fat is supplied, thus embedded in the horny cell layer.
Panniculus adiposus
Lowest skin layer that works as storage organ for grease, thus protecting the skin from the cold. It upholsters the skin mechanically.
The excretion of sweat glands consists to 99% of water with admixture of salts and metabolism products. Perspiration regulates body temperature. Sweat and tallow together create the hydro-lipidic film of the skin.
pH Value
A measure of the acidity or alkalinity. The pH of any fluid is the measure of its hydrogen ion (H+) concentration relative to that of a given standard solution. The pH may range from 0 to 14, where 0 is most acid, 14 most basic, and 7 is neutral. The skin’s natural acid mantle has a pH of 5.5.
A substance that gives color to tissue. Pigments are responsible for the color of skin, eyes, and hair. Other components influencing the color are the skin’s density and its blood circulation.
Opening of the sebaceous gland. The opening of sweat glands cannot be seen with the naked eye.
Itching. Pruritus can result from drug reaction, food allergy, kidney or liver disease, parasites, aging or dry skin, contact skin reaction, such as poison ivy, and for unknown reasons.
Repair system
Repairs damage after harmful UV-radiation impact. Damaged places are localized and replaced by enzymes. Are the damages surmounting the reparation capacity of enzymes a self-destruction process is started, which disables potential dangerous cells to continue living.
Concept to avoid dehydration and degreasing of the skin during cleansing process. Fatty substances should replace the removed grease of the skin. Often there is no real restoration, instead a swelling is created that gives a feeling of smooth skin but which actually only further emphasizes the damage. Real restoration restores the healthy grease level of the skin.
Temperature, humidity and sunlight are the essential factors that influence the skin during the different seasons. Cold, dry air and little sun in the winter make the skin dry and more sensitive. Extra care is a necessity.
Skin type
General classification in normal, dry and oily skin. Dermatologists divide into pigmentation types: from Type I (very light skin) to Type VI (black- dark brown skin).
Itching and burning of skin without other signs of inflammation.. Occurs with 20% of population when contacting certain fabrics. Affects mainly women. Disappears after 10 minutes.
Stratum Granulosum
Outer layer of the epidermis bordering the horny outer layer.
Excessive water absorption by the horny outer layer due to contact with water, soap or other leaches over a longer period of time. Decreases the barrier function, dehydrates skin and makes it more sensitive.
Greasy area running from forehead over nose to the chin. Due to the grease the skin is shiny and tends to produce blackheads and pimples. “Combination skin” represents a skin type where the difference between the consistency of the skin of the T-Zone compared to the consistency of the rest of the face is large.
Fatty excrement of tallow glands, which smoothens the surfaces of skin and hair.
The appearance of wheals caused by a specific stimulus. A hive, or wheal, is a circular, red, spongy lesion that evolves and changes over minutes to hours. It is usually surrounded by an area of redness called a flare. Urticaria can vary in size from a few millimeters to giant lesions covering a whole extremity.
UV - radiation
Ultraviolet radiation. Invisible rays that are part of the energy that comes from the sun. UV-A and UV-B radiation cause positive (tanning, vitamin D-synthesis, etc.) and negative effects (sunburn, fotoallergic reactions, skin aging, skin cancer, etc.).
Varicose Vein
A dilated twisting vein, usually involving a superficial vein in the leg, often associated with incompetency of the valves in the vein. These visible and bulging veins are often associated with symptoms such as tired, heavy, or aching limbs. In severe cases, varicose veins can rupture, or open sores can form on the skin
Important component of the body including the skin. The water content of the skin lies at 12% explicitly under the one of living tissue (67%). The maintenance of this % is ensured by the barrier function of the horny layer, the hydro-lipidic film and the natural moisture factors.
Dry skin.